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Film Editing

Posted by WhatsUpNaija on May 27, 2013 at 8:30 PM

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   EDITING GLOSSARY AND TERMS

Video editing is the process of manipulating and rearranging video shots to create a new work. Editing is usually considered to be one part of the post production process — other post-production tasks include titling, colour correction, sound mixing, etc.

Get ready to begin your trip to cutting together the next masterpiece!

While the process of editing has evolved from physically cutting film to manipulating it nonlinearly on a computer, the philosophy to storytelling hasn’t changed a bit. It may not be the flashiest side of the industry, editing is easily among the most important and respected fields by other filmmakers. Are you ready to become the cutting room king or queen? Read on!


  GLOSSARY

  Like many professions, film editors have established a vocabulary specific to      their    industry. Professional film editors may use many technical terms while performing their work, so we have selected several of the most common words and phrases to highlight in our glossary.

Avid – A digital editing system frequently used by full-featured offline, film and online editors. The system offers a wide range of effects, including real-time 3D effects and multi-camera capability.

Continuity editing – Maintains the storyline by editing shots and scenes together to create smooth flowing transitions while eliminating visual inconsistencies.

Cross-cutting – Used to show a relationship between different sets of action or to build suspense by quickly cutting back and forth between two or more sequences of actions, suggesting the actions are occurring simultaneously but in different locations.

Cut – Splicing two shots together during the editing process to create a visual transition in which one shot instantly replaces another shot on screen. May also establish a rapid transition between one time and space and another.

Cutaway – An individual shot inserted into a sequence, momentarily interrupting the flow of action. Generally used to introduce a relevant detail.

Dissolve – A gradual scene transition in which an editor seamlessly overlaps the end of one shot with the beginning of the next one.

Eyeline match – Part of continuity editing, the term refers to the practice of matching the eyelines (gazes) between two or more characters. For example, if character A gazes off screen to the right in shot A, the editor will cut to character B who will look to the left in shot B, returning the gaze and establishing a relationship between the two characters. The term may also be used to establish the proximity and continuity between a character and an object.

Fade – A visual transition between scenes where a shot is gradually replaced by a dark area with no images. An editor may gradually fade into a new scene to indicate a change in time or place or introduce the closing credits to signal the end of the film.

Final cut – The completed edit of a film that has been approved by the director and producer as the version and will be shown to audiences.

Intercutting –Related shots are inserted into a series of other shots, usually to create contrast.

Master shot (Cover shot) – A long shot of an entire scene that an editor can use to facilitate the components of closer shots or assemble a sequence.

Montage – Several shots are edited together to create a visual and emotional impact. May also be used to indicate a passage of time.

Rough cut – An early effort by the post-production team to assemble the footage into the final version of the film. The equivalent of a writer’s first draft, the director, producers and editors review the rough cut and suggest changes as part of the process of completing the film.

Post-production – Refers to all of the processes that occur after the principle filming has been completed, including editing, visual effects and sound effects.

Sequence shot – An extended shot including an entire scene or sequence without any editing.

Shot – A single image that is generally described in terms of the distance of the camera in relation to the object in the frame. The most common types of shots include: big close-up, close-up, extreme close-up, extreme long shot/establishing shot, long shot, medium close-up, medium long shot and medium shot.

Splice – Joining two pieces of film together.

Synching Dailies – Interlocking the pictures and sounds from the day’s film shoot.

8 mm: A compact videocassette record/playback tape format which uses eight millimeter wide magnetic tape. A worldwide standard established in 1983 allowing high quality video and audio recording. Flexibility, lightweight cameras and reduced tape storage requirements are among the format's advantages.

A or B Wind: When a roll of 16mm film, perforated along one edge, is held so that the outside end of the film leaves the roll at the top and toward the right, winding "A" should have the perforations on the edge of the film toward the observer, and winding "B" should have the perforations on the edge away from the observer. In both cases, the emulsion surface should face inward on the roll.

A/B Roll Editing: Video editing arrangement where scenes are edited from two source VCRs ("A" and "B") to a third (recording) VCR. Typically a switcher or mixer is used to provide transition effects between sources. Control over the machines and process can be done manually or automatically using an edit controller.

Adaptive Compression: Data compression software that continually analyzes and compensates its algorithm, depending on the type and content of the data and the storage medium.

AFV: AFV (Audio Followup Video). During video recording, the video signal is usually accompanied by an audio signal. Sometimes, during video editing, it is often necessary to separate the audio from the video signal. Audio-follow-video mixers allow accompanying audio to "follow" the video when switching video sources or not.

AGC: AGC (Automatic Gain Control) is the circuitry used to ensure that output signals are maintained at constant levels in the face of widely varying input signal levels. AGC is typically used to maintain a constant video luminance level by boosting weak (low light) picture signals electronically. Some equipment include gain controls which are switchable between automatic and manual control.

ALC: ALC (Automatic Level Control) is the circuitry used to automatically adjust the audio recording level to compensate for variations in input volume. Some equipment includes level controls which are switchable between automatic and manual control.

Aliasing: A form of image distortion caused by sampling frequencies being too low to faithfully reproduce image detail. (See Anti-aliasing.) Examples include: - Temporal aliasing - e.g., rotating wagon wheel spokes apparently reversing direction - Raster scan aliasing - e.g., twinkling or strobing effects on sharp horizontal lines - Stair-stepping - Stepped or jagged edges of angled lines, e.g., at ...

Analog: A device or method which makes use of non-discrete variations in frequency, amplitude, location, etc., to symbolize or carry sounds, signals, mathematical data or other information. The signals vary continuously instead of in steps. Analog technology "mimics" information, so that, e.g., a voice is represented as an electrical signal with frequency and amplitude proportional to the pitch and ...

Analog Video: A video signal that represents an infinite number of smooth gradations between given video levels. Analog video whether transmitted over cables, read from videotapes or broadcast, is subject to degradation due to noise, distortion and other electronic phenomena. Normal signal levels should be within 0.7-1 volt. By contrast, a digital video signal assigns a finite set of levels.

Anti-Aliasing: A form of interpolation used when combining images; pixels along the transitions between images are averaged to provide a smooth transition.

Aperture: Effective Aperture: The apparent diameter of a lens viewed from the position of the object against a diffusely illuminated background, such as a sky. Picture Aperture: The rectangular opening in a metal plate at which each frame of the motion picture film is situated during exposure, printing, or projection. Relative Aperture: The ratio of the focal length of a lens to its effective aperture for ...

Arithmetic Coding: Perhaps the major drawback to each of the {Huffman} encoding techniques is their poor performance when processing texts where one symbol has a probability of occurrence approaching unity. Although the entropy associated with such symbols is extremely low, each symbol must still be encoded as a discrete value. Arithmetic coding removes this restriction by representing messages as intervals of ...

Aspect Ratio: The relationship of width and height. When an image is displayed on different screens, the aspect ratio must be kept the same to avoid "stretching" in either the vertical or horizontal direction. For standard TV or monitor, the aspect ratio is 4: 3 yielding 160X120, 320X240 and 640X480 sizes. The HDTV video format has an aspect ratio of 16 to 9 (16: 9).

Asymmetrical Compression: A system which requires more processing capability to compress an image than to decompress an image. It is typically used for the mass distribution of programs on media such as CD-ROM, where significant expense can be incurred for the production and compression of the program but the playback system must be low in cost.

ATM: ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a switching/transmission technique where data is transmitted in small, fixed sized cells (5 byte header, 48 byte payload). The cells lend themselves both to the time-division- multiplexing characteristics of the transmission media, and the packet switching characteristics desired of data networks. At each switching node, the ATM header identifies a virtual path ...

ATV: Advanced TV. Although sometimes used interchangeably, advanced and high-definition television {HDTV} are not one and the same. Advanced television (ATV) would distribute wide-screen television signals with resolution substantially better than current systems. It requires changes to current emission regulations, including transmission standards. In addition, ATV would offer at least two-channel, ...

Audio Bandwidth: The range of audio frequencies which directly influence the fidelity of a sound. The higher the audio bandwidth, the better the sound fidelity. The highest practical frequency which the human ear can normally hear is 20 kHz. An audio amplifier which processes all frequencies equally (flat response to 20 kHz) and a reasonably high signal-to-noise ratio, will faithfully reproduce the audio ...

Audio Dub: VCR feature allowing replacement of the audio signals on a previously recorded tape without disturbing the video signal. When dubbing is not available via the video recorder, audio dubbing can be performed while recording using an audio mixer.

Audio Mixing: The blending of two or more audio signals to generate a combined signal which is often used for audio dub. During video processing, audio mixing may be used to insert narration or background music.

AVI: Audio Video Interleaved. File format for digital video and audio under Windows wherein audio and video data are stored in alternate blocks. File format is cross-platform compatible, allowing *.AVI video files to be played under other operating systems.

AVK: Audio Video Kernel. DVI system software designed to play motion video and audio across hardware and operating system environments.

Back Light: 1) A light source that illuminates a subject from behind, used to separate the subject from the background and give them depth and dimension. Back lights are often improperly applied or overlooked completely. 2) Also, a switch on some camcorders used to compensate exposure for situations where the brightest light is coming from behind the subject.

Background Video: 1) Video that forms a background scene into which a key may be inserted. 2) A solid color video output generated by the background generator within a device, such as a production switcher, for use as background video in key effects.

Backing: Anti-halation Backing: A temporary, dark-colored, gelatin coating which is sometimes applied to the rear side of a photographic plate or film to reduce halation by absorbing any light that may pass through the emulsion. Non-Curl Backing: A transparent, gelatin coating, sometimes applied to the opposite side of a photographic film from the emulsion to prevent curling by balancing the forces that ...

B-Frame: An {MPEG} video frame type that provides bi-directional interframe compression. B frames derive their content from the closest I or P frames, one in the past and one in the future. B frames require greater computing power to produce than I or P frames. B frames enable compression rates of 200: 1. Robust MPEG encoders employ a combination of B, I, and P frame encoding.

Black a Tape: The process of recording a black burst signal across the entire length of a tape. Often done before recording edited footage on the tape to give the tape clean, continuous video and sync and to insure there is no video already on the tape.

Black Burst: A composite color video signal comprised of sync, color burst and black video. It is used to synchronize (genlock) other video sources to the same sync and color information. Black burst generators are used in video studios to "lock" the entire facility to a common signal ("house sync" or "house black").

Blanking Interval: The horizontal blanking interval is the time between the end of one scanning line and the beginning of the next. The vertical blanking interval is the time between the end of one video field and the beginning of the next. Blanking occurs when a monitor's electron beam is positioned to start a new line or a new field. The blanking interval is used to instantaneously reduce the beam's amplitude so ...

Blanking Level: Also known as the pedestal, it is the voltage level produced at the end of each horizontal picture line which separates the portion of the video signal containing the picture information from the portion containing the synchronizing information. This voltage makes the electron beam "invisible" as it moves to draw the next visible line.

Blue Screen: A film or video technique in which an object or performer is taped against a blue-colored background. In post-production, the blue color is electronically removed, allowing images to be combined. Also, the film industry's term for chroma key.

B-Y R-Y: The human visual system has much less acuity for spatial variation of colour than for brightness. Rather than conveying RGB, it is advantageous to convey luma in one channel, and colour information that has had luma removed in the two other channels. In an analog system, the two colour channels can have less bandwidth, typically one-third that of luma. In a digital system each of the two colour ...

CD-I: CD-I means Compact Disc Interactive. It is meant to provide a standard platform for mass consumer interactive multimedia applications. So it is more akin to CD-DA, in that it is a full specification for both the data/code and standalone playback hardware: a CD-I player has a CPU, RAM, ROM, OS, and audio/video/(MPEG) decoders built into it. Portable players add an LCD screen and...

CD-XA: CD-XA is a CD-ROM extension being designed to support digital audio and still images. Announced in August 1988 by Microsoft, Philips, and Sony, the CD-ROM XA (for Extended Architecture) format incorporates audio from the CD-I format. It is consistent with ISO 9660, (the volume and the structure of CD-ROM), is an application extension of the Yellow Book, and draws on the Green Book. CD-XA...

Cel Animation Production Artwork: Any cel, drawing or painting used in any part of the making of a film. (Note: Production does NOT mean "under the camera". Many types of art created for the production of the film were not photographed, but instead acted as a guide for artists to follow. Some of the different types of production artwork are: Concept Art Inspirational sketches or paintings used to establish the situations, ...

Cel Levels: The individual cels that go together to make up a cel setup. Due to technical considerations, it was very rare for two or more separate characters to be included on a single cel level. Usually, each element was on its own cel, with up to a maximum of five levels to a scene. Because of the added density of the multiple cel levels, the paint colors were corrected for the discoloration caused by the...

Cel Setups: A combination of two or more cels, with or without a background, which work together to form a complete image. These can be either Matching (the way the image appeared in the finished film) or Non-Matching (combinations of elements which are pleasing together, but do not appear together in the film).

Cell Compression: Cell is a compression technique developed by Sun Microsystems Inc. The compression algorithms, the bit-stream definition, and the decompression algorithms are open. That is Sun will tell anybody who is interested about them. Cell compression is similar to MPEG and H.261 in that there is a lot of room for value-add on the compressor end. Getting the highest quality image from a given bit count at...

Cels: Sheets of clear plastic, containing the images of the characters, which are placed over a background, and then photographed in succession to give the illusion of movement in the completed film. The outline of the image, whether hand-inked or xerographed, is applied to the front of the cel. The colors are painted by hand onto the back of the cel to eliminate brushstrokes. Large areas of black...

Character Generator: Device that electronically generates text which can be superimposed over a video signal. Text is usually entered via a keyboard, allowing selection of various fonts, sizes, colors, styles and background colors, then stored as multiple pages for retrieval.

Chroma: The color portion of the video signal that includes hue (phase angle) and saturation (amplitude) information. Requires luminance, or light intensity, to make it visible.

Chroma Key: The process of overlaying one video signal over another by replacing a range of colors with the second signal. Typically, the first (foreground) picture is photographed with a person or object against a special, single-color background (the key-color). The second picture is inserted in place of the key-color. The most common example is in broadcast weather segments where pictures of weather maps ...

Chrominance Level: The color portion of a video signal separate from the luminance (or brightness) component, representing the saturation and hue (tint) at a particular point of the image. Black, gray and white have no chrominance, but any colored signal has both chrominance and luminance. The higher the chrominance level, the stronger the color (e.g., a strong signal produces red, and a weak signal, pink).

CIF: Common Image Format. The standardization of the structure of the samples that represent the picture information of a single frame in digital HDTV, independent of frame rate and sync/blank structure. The uncompressed bit rates for transmitting CIF at 29.97 frames/sec is 36.45 Mbit/sec.

Cinepak: A software file-compression scheme for video that's well suited to low-power CPUs. Established by SuperMac (now Radius Technologies), it is common on Windows and the Mac OS. Cinepak video is typically 320-by-240 pixels at 15fps.

Clip: A continuous set of frames from a source tape or reel. Also called a scene or "take."

Clipping: The electronic process of shearing off the peaks of either the white or black excursions of a video signal for limiting purposes. Sometimes, clipping is performed prior to modulation, and sometimes to limit the signal, so it will not exceed a predetermined level.

Codec: Code/Decode. An encoder plus a decoder is an electric device that compresses and decompresses digital signals. CODECs usually perform A-to-D and D-to-A conversion.

Color Balance: The process of matching the amplitudes of red, green and blue signals so the resulting mixture makes an accurate white color.

Color Bars: An electronically generated video pattern consisting of eight equal width colors, used to establish a proper color reference before recording and playback and for adjustment purposes.

Color Burst: The portion of a color video signal which contains a short sample of the color subcarrier used to add color to a signal. It is used as a color synchronization signal to establish a reference for the color information following it and is used by a color monitor to decode the color portion of a video signal. The color burst acts as both amplitude and phase reference for color hue and intensity. The ...

Color Correction: A process in which the coloring in a television image is altered or corrected by electronic means. (See Chroma Corrector)

Color Keying: To superimpose one image over another for special effects.

Color Subcarrier: The 3.58 MHz/NTSC (4.43 MHz/PAL) signal added to a black and white television signal to add color information. The subcarrier frequency is too high to be detected by black and white televisions ensuring compatibility. Color sets employ special circuitry which detects and decodes the color component for display.

Component Video: Most home video signals consist of combined (composite) video signals, composed of luminance (brightness) information, chrominance (color) information and sync information. To get maximum video quality, professional equipment (Betacam and MII) and some consumer equipment (S-VHS and Hi-8) keep the video components separate. Component video comes in several varieties: RGB (red, green, blue), YUV...

Composite Video: A video signal in which the luminance (brightness), chrominance (color), blanking pulses, sync pulses and color burst information have been combined using one of the coding standards. ({NTSC}, {PAL}, {SECAM})

Compressed Video: A digital video image or segment that has been processed using a variety of computer compression algorithms and other techniques to reduce the amount of data required to accurately represent the video content.

Contrast: (1) The general term for describing the tone separation in a print in relation to a given difference in the light-and.shade of the negative or subject from which it was made. Thus, "contrast" is the general term for the property called "gamma" (Y), which is measured by making an H & D Curve for the proces under study. (2) The range of tones in a photographic negative or positive expressed as the...

Crosstalk: The interference between two audio or two video signals caused by unwanted stray signals. In video, crosstalk between input channels can be classified into two basic categories: luminance/sync crosstalk; and color (chroma) crosstalk. When video crosstalk is too high, ghost images from one source appear over the other. In audio, signal leakage, typically between left and right channels or between ...

Curl: A defect of a photographic film consisting of unflatness in a plane cutting across the width of the film. Curl may result from improper drying conditions, and the direction and amount of curl may vary with the humidity of the air to which the film is exposed.

DAT: Digital Audio Tape. A consumer recording and playback medium developed by Sony, maintaining a signal quality equal to that of the CD.

Definition: The aggregate of fine details available on-screen. The higher the image definition, the greater the number of details that can be discerned. During video recording and subsequent playback, several factors can conspire to cause a loss of definition. Among these are the limited frequency responses of magnetic tapes and signal losses associated with electronic circuitry employed in the recording...

Delay Correction: When an electronic signal travels through electronic circuitry or even through long coaxial cable runs, delay problems may occur. This is manifested as a displaced image and special electronic circuitry is needed to correct it.

Delta Frame: Also called Difference Frame. Contains only the pixels different from the preceding Key Frame. Delta Frames reduce the overall size of the video clip to be stored on disk

Digital: A method of signal representation by a set of discrete numerical values, as opposed to a continuously fluctuating current or voltage or where information is transferred by electrical "on-off" or "high-low" pulses, instead of continuously varying ("analog") signals. An analog signal is converted to digital by the use of an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter chip by taking samples of the signal at a ...

Distortion: In video, distortion usually refers to changes in the luminance or chrominance portions of a signal. It may contort the picture and produce improper contrast, faulty luminance levels, twisted images, erroneous colors and snow. In audio, distortion refers to any undesired changes in the waveform of a signal caused by the introduction of spurious elements. The most common audio distortions are ...

Drop Frame: A type of SMPTE time code designed to match clock time exactly. Two frames of code are dropped every minute, on the minute, except every tenth minute, to correct for the fact that color frames occur at a rate of 29.97 per second, rather than an exact 30 frames per second (see Non-Drop Frame). Designed to drive editors crazy.

Categories: FILM CLASS

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